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Tunable bandpass filters variable resistors

Tunable bandpass filters variable resistors
One of the difficulties in the design of higher-order tunable bandpass filters is achieving correct tracking of the variable resistors in the RC networks. The use of switched capacitor networks can obviate that difficulty, as is shown in this filter. The filter can be divided roughly into two stages: an oscillator that controls the electronic switches arid the four phase-shift networks that provide the filtering proper. The oscillator, based on a 555, generates a pulsating signal whose frequency is adjustable over a wide range: the duty factor varies from 1:10 to 100:1. Electronic switches ESI through ES4 form the variable resistors whose value is dependent on the frequency of the digital signal. The operation of these switches is fairly simple. When they are closed, their resistance is about 60 ; when they are open, it is virtually infinitely high. a switch is closed for, say, 25% of the time, its average resistance is therefore 240 . `Vary…