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Electronics Tutorial #1 - Electricity - Voltage, Current, Power, AC and DC

Basic / beginners Electronics Tutorial / course / lesson - Voltage, Current, Power, AC and DC
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Nikola Tesla - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikola_T...
Thomas Edison - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_E...

In this tutorial I cover the following:

* Some history about electricity / central power stations / electrification. 
* Science of electron flow in a conductor / wire
* I use fluid dynamics in a pipe to explain voltage (…

Power Amplifier with voltage regulator 4 × 50 Watt TDA8588

Power Amplifier with voltage regulator 4 × 50 Watt TDA8588    The TDA8588 is a multiple voltage regulator combined with four independent audio power amplifiers configured in bridge tied load with diagnostic capability. The output voltages of all regulators except regulators 2 and 3 can be controlled via the I2C-bus. However, regulator 3 can be set to 0 V via the I2C-bus. The output voltage of regulator 2 (microcontroller supply) and the maximum output voltage of regulator 3 (mechanical digital and microcontroller supplies) can both be either 5 V or 3.3 V depending on the type number. The maximum output voltages of both regulators are fixed to avoid any risk of damaging the microcontroller that may occur during a disturbance of the I 2C-bus. The amplifier diagnostic functions give information about output offset, load, or short-circuit. Diagnostic functions are controlled via the I2C-bus. The TDA8588 is protected against short-circuit, over-temperature, open ground and open VP connecti…

60W MosFet Audio Amplifier

High Quality, powerful unit: 90W into 4 Ohm load Also suited as guitar or bass amplifier60W MosFet Audio Amplifier Description



To celebrate the hundredth design posted to this website, and to fulfil the requests of many correspondents wanting an amplifier more powerful than the 25W MosFet, a 60 - 90W High Quality power amplifier design is presented here. Circuit topology is about the same of the above mentioned amplifier, but the extremely rugged IRFP240 and IRFP9240 MosFet devices are used as the output pair, and well renowned high voltage Motorola's transistors are employed in the preceding stages. The supply rails voltage was kept prudentially at the rather low value of + and - 40V. For those wishing to experiment, the supply rails voltage could be raised to + and - 50V maximum, allowing the amplifier to approach the 100W into 8 Ohm target: enjoy! A matching, discrete components, Modular Preamplifier design is available here:Modular Audio Preamplifier. Notes: In the original circ…

45 Watt Class B Amplifier

45 Watt Class B Amplifier Description 45W into 8 Ohm - 69W into 4 Ohm Easy to build - No setup required45 Watt Class B Amplifier Description


The main design targets for this amplifier were as follows:
Output power in the 40 - 70W rangeSimple circuitryEasy to locate, low cost componentsRugged performanceNo setup
These goals were achieved by using a discrete-components op-amp driving a BJT complementary common-emitter output stage into Class B operation. In this way, for small output currents, the output transistors are turned off, and the op-amp provides all of the output current. At higher output currents, the power transistors conduct, and the contribution of the op-amp is limited to approximately 0.7/R11. The quiescent current of the op-amp biases the external transistors, and hence greatly reduces the range of crossover.

The idea sprang up from a letter published on Wireless World, December 1982, page 65 written by N. M. Allinson, then at the University of Keele, Staffordshire.
In this l…

18W Class-B Audio Amplifier with Tone Controls

18W Class-B Audio Amplifier with Tone Controls


In order to satisfy repeated requests by correspondents, a medium power audio amplifier incorporating tone controls in the feedback path was finally designed. To avoid an excessive increase in parts-count, due to the addition of the tone controls, a simple amplifier circuitry was designed on the same guidelines of the successful 45 Watt Class B Amplifier, but using the excellent NE5534 IC instead of a discrete component op-amp to drive the output "dumper" transistors.
The particular circuit configuration, allowed to push the NE5534 exceptional capacity of driving the output transistors near to its limits, enabling the whole amplifier to deliver relatively high power outputs without problems. For this reason, it was possible to obtain 18W into an 8 Ohm load using a power supply voltage of +/- 20V. Despite the complication added by the tone controls, the amplifier has an input sensitivity of 130mV RMS, allowing to connect directly…

240W MOSFET Power Audio Amplifier

240W MOSFET Power Audio Amplifier
A high power audio amplifier circuit which can output up to 240W on a 4Ω speaker.
This mosfet amplifier is built with BUZ23 and uses a 40V symmetrical power supply. Connect the NTC close to the heatsinker.
MosFet 240W power amplifier schematic

Battery Level Indicator 36 Volts Schematic Circuit

Battery Level Indicator 36 Volts Schematic Circuit

This battery level indicator offers (5) LEDs that light up progressively as the battery voltage increases. This is a update of the 24V Battery Level Indicator.
While designed for 36V systems, it is easily modified to 24V, 48V or 60V simply by changing two resistors.
LED ColorCharge LevelRed:Power Connected (0%) (essentially always on)Orange:Greater than 35V (25%)Yellow:Greater than 37V (50%)Green:Greater than 39V (75%)Blue:Greater than 41V (100%) (full charge is about 41 to 42V) Of course, you may select your own colors if desired.
High voltage issues One limiting factor is the LM339 that has an absolute maximum voltage rating of 36V –and it is not good practice to operate near that point. The solution involves running the IC power rail off a zener shunt regulator. Shunt regulators are very simple, inexpensive and robust –good for this application. However, the LM339 open collector outputs cannot drive LEDs powered from the battery bus d…

SAVING ENERGY IN YOUR HOME - 100 Tips To Save Energy!

SAVING ENERGY IN YOUR HOME 100 Tips To Save Energy
1. It begins with your commitment. If you want to save energy, you have to be committed enough in doing the necessary things for it. Without your commitment, you may not become mindful of you actions, which can directly or indirectly affect your overall energy consumption. Thus, you have to be committed, so that you can see results on it. 
2. Make it a practice to turn off the lights in your room. Lots of people today leave their bedrooms without turning the lights off. Although lights do not consume much electricity, lots of energy would be wasted if you constantly left them turned on for the most parts of the day, even if you are not inside the room. Thus, make it a practice to turn off the lights, so that you can save energy. 
3. Replace your filters regularly. Most heating and cooling equipment require clean filters, in order for them to run clean. The filters can also help them in becoming more energy efficient. With that, replaci…

Replace your filters regularly - Close the windows

Replace your filters regularly. 

Most heating and cooling equipment require clean filters, in order for them to run clean. The filters can also help them in becoming more energy efficient. With that, replacing your filters regularly can help you save a lot in terms of energy consumption. Ask your technician about it, so that you would know when is the best time to do so.

Dirty coils make your appliances consume more electricity. 

Refrigerator coils can get dirty over a certain period of time. In most cases, they can accumulate a lot of dirt within the six month period; and, when that happens, the dirty coil would make your refrigerator work harder in order to achieve its desired temperature. Thus, it is best if you practice cleaning and vacuuming your refrigerator coils every six months or so, so that you won’t have to endure higher electricity bills.

Close the windows. 

Whether you need to achieve lower or higher temperature inside your house, it is best if you close your windows. This…

Make it a practice to turn off the lights in your room - Tips To Save Energy

 Make it a practice to turn off the lights in your room - Tips To Save Energy
Lots of people today leave their bedrooms without turning the lights off. Although lights do not consume much electricity, lots of energy would be wasted if you constantly left them turned on for the most parts of the day, even if you are not inside the room. Thus, make it a practice to turn off the lights, so that you can save energy.

It begins with your commitment - Tips To Save Energy

If you want to save energy, you have to be committed enough in doing the necessary things for it. Without your commitment, you may not become mindful of you actions, which can directly or indirectly affect your overall energy consumption. Thus, you have to be committed, so that you can see results on it. 

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