TDA8927/TDA8929 Audio Amplifier 2x80W

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TDA8927/TDA8929 general description:

The TDA8927 is the switching power stage of a two-chip set for a high efficiency class-D audio power amplifier system. The system is split into two chips:
TDA8927J/ST/TH; a digital power stage in a DBS17P,
RDBS17P or HSOP24 power package
TDA8929T; the analog controller chip in a SO24package.

With this chip set a compact 2 × 80 W audio amplifier system can be built, operating with high efficiency and very low dissipation. No heatsink is required, or depending on supply voltage and load, a very small one. The system operates over a wide supply voltage range from ±15 up to ±30 V and consumes a very low quiescentcurrent.

TDA8927/TDA8929 features:

  • High efficiency (>94%)
  • Operating voltage from ±15 to ±30 V
  • Very low quiescent current
  • High output power
  • Short-circuit proof across the load, only in combination with controller TDA8929T
  • Diagnostic output
  • Usable as a stereo Single-Ended (SE) amplifier or as a mono amplifier in Bridge-Tied Load (BTL)
  •  Electrostatic discharge protection (pin to pin)
  • Thermally protected, only in combination with controller TDA8929T.

TDA8927/TDA8929 applications:

  • Television sets
  • Home-sound sets
  • Multimedia systems
  • All mains fed audio systems
  • Car audio (boosters).

TDA8927/TDA8929 circuit diagram:

TDA8927/TDA8929 layout and pcb:


МР7720 Audio Amplifier 2x30W

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      Modern integrated class D UMZCH combine seemingly incompatible: high efficiency and low THD. This article describes the basic principles of Class-D amplifiers and describes the line chips UMZCH American firm MPS (Monolithic Power Systems). Recently, the power amplifier circuitry (UMZCH) have developed two contradictory directions: Improvement in the subjective quality of sound reproduction, usually by reducing the efficiency (COP) of the amplifier; Increased efficiency of the amplifier and reduce its size while maintaining high quality performance. The first direction is characterized by using the output stages UMZCH powerful field-effect transistors and vacuum tubes (Hi-End), often working in class A. The second direction is characteristic of wearable and automotive audio equipment. It is in realization of this direction are widely used amplifiers class D, and high-quality sound reproduction apparatus stationary class D is most commonly used in amplifiers for the subwoofer. There are five major classes of modes of active elements (transistors or tubes). This class of operation modes A, B, AB, C and D. Recall their features.

Class A mode

of operationactive element (transistor or bulb) is open throughout the period of the signal. Class A power amplifiers introduce minimal distortion in the amplified signal to have a very low K11D. They are used in one-and two-stroke potaktpyh UMZCH for midrange and tweeters, which is especially important that the level of harmonic distortion was low. Class A amplifiers - the most expensive.

Class B operation mode
active element (transistor or tube) is only open one half cycle of the input signal. Class amplifiers have high efficiency.but THD them much higher. Commonly used in two-stroke UMZCH srsdnschastotnyh for speakers and speaker mid-bass.

Operation mode class AB

active element (transistor or bulb) and this mode is open one half-full and some of the other half-cycle of the input signal. Mode class AB - a cross between classes A and B. Class AB amplifiers have a higher efficiency. than Class A amplifiers, but contribute to the signal harmonic distortion less than Class B. This is the most common class of mass UMZCH.

Mode of operation of class C

Class C - is the work of transistors with a small amplitude of the voltage locking lower than the bias voltage. In this case, the amplitude of the audio signal is less than the bias voltage. In this state, the transistor conducts only the upper portion of the positive half, greatly distorts the signal. Therefore, audio amplifiers, this class is not applicable.This mode transistors has a high efficiency (about 85%).

Class D operation mode

in mode class D converts the input signal into rectangular pulses of equal amplitude, the duration of which is proportional to the value of the signal at any given time (eg, PWM - Pulse Width Modulation). Active elements of the output stage to operate at the same switching mode and have two states: a transistor or a locked or fully open. Class D amplifiers have a maximum efficiency, as main energy loss pas weekend powerful keys occur until the moment when in the open position and minimal energy loss will be less than the lower the resistance of the public key.Conventional Class D amplifiers have an efficiency of over 90% and large enough THD (about 10%), and application of new technologies (know-how of the producers) to reduce THD to fractions of a percent. This significantly expanded the scope of class D in modern UMZCH.
The concept is simple UMZCH Class D

Basic principles of UMZCH Class D
concept is simple UMZCH Class D shown in bottom
It consists of a pulse width modulator (PWM) on the transistor Q1, a strong push-pull transistor switch Q2, Q3, and a lowpass filter (LPF) which filters out high frequency components of the pulse current through the loudspeaker. Divider na resistors R1 and R2 will set the offset voltage of Q1 and the symmetry of the whole scheme. R3 - load resistor transistor Ql. R4, C4 - thermostabilization emitter circuit of the transistor. C1 - filter capacitor voltage. C5, R5, L1. C6 - a lowpass filter (LPF). C7 - decoupling capacitor. The composition of Class D amplifier also includes a generator of a triangular or sawtooth. The frequency of this oscillator is usually in the range of 200 ... 600 kHz. Swipe "blade" of the generator and the gain stage to Q1 are chosen so that the output transistor switches Q2 and Q3 are alternately opened until when the voltage saturation "saw" through zero. Stress diagram explaining the operation of the scheme. beep input otsugstvuet pas. "Saw * is symmetric, and na emitters of transistors Q2 and Q3 form a symmetrical square wave, square wave. When submitting pa amplifier input signal LF "Saw" will shift up or down. Change points unlocking transistors and as a consequence, the duration of the output pulses and pauses between them. These parameters will vary according to the law of the input low-frequency (audio) signal. The resulting pulse signal with a variable duty cycle pulse-called imiulspym or PWM sigialom and process to obtain it - shirotpo-width modulation (PWM). PWM sigpal contains LF component. form modudiruyuschy repeating signal. If the PWM signal from the output transistor switches to pass through the LPF, then he will miss this component to the speaker and to suppress the high-frequency components of the PWM sigpala. Due to incomplete suppression of the HF-sostavlyayuschsy AC voltage on the speaker will be slightly indented, you can see enlarged fragment pas to the lower graph in  . Irregularity decreases with increasing frequency PWM generator, improved quality of the LPF and the use of certain know-how, which carefully guard Manufacturers chip amplifiers class D.
Class D amplifiers using bipolar transistors are gone. The foundation of modern UMZCH Class D are powerful keys pas MOS transistors are characterized by high performance and low resistance channel open. When using such transistors in key mode achieves a high efficiency. Two practical schemes UMZCH Class D MOS transistors and operational amplifier are given in [1]. The real boom in the use mode class D UMZCH began with the appearance of such specialized chips as ZXCD1000 firm Zeiex | 2 |, and several others. These chips are called driver amplifiers class D. They contain a PWM generator with "Saw" frequency 2200 kHz and provide control of external keys on MIS traizistorah. Many of these drivers can drive four external output keys pas MOS transistors included bridge. The next stage in the development of UMZCH Class D was the creation of chips that integrate not only the driver but also the keys pas weekend MIS traizistorah. It is to such chips are MR7720, MR7731 and MR7781 firm MPS (Monolithic Power Systems). All are monophonic. About rated output says penultimate figure in the name: MR7720 - 20 W, MR7731 - 30 W, MR7781 - 80 watts. Peak output power of these chips twice. Consider the features and switching circuits each of them.

MR7720 IC is available in a SOIC8 (SMD) and PDIP8, which have 8 pins and the same pinout, or, as they say now, raspipovku. UMZCH this chip has a memorial 20W load resistance of 4 ohms and a supply voltage of 24 V. Frequency Response -20 Hz .... 20 kHz. It has an efficiency of 90% with non-linear distortion less than 0.1% for the whole frequency range and output power of 1 W (0.06 ... 0.07% to 1 kHz). Supply voltage 7.5 ... 24 V chip embedded in the bottom of the output key pas MOS transistors, which are connected in series on Nutrition (half-bridge).

Schematic diagram UMZCH Class D chip MR7720
Circuit of the chip that is very similar to the OS or UMZCH on chips that operate in the usual modes of classes A, B or AB. Integrated circuit U1 MR7720 has a differential input (pins 1 and 2), a positive (neivertiruyuschy) conclusion in this scheme is used as an input offset voltage, which sets the mode of the chip, and most importantly - the symmetry of the circuit. Bias voltage to neivertiruyuschem input (pin 1) should be equal to half the supply voltage, it is formed divider R3, R2. Capacitor C2 blocks the output AC voltage. It should be noted that the asymmetry of the circuit can cause an increase in nonlinear distortion and even overheating of one of the output switches and the output circuit of the system. The input signal is applied to the inverting input of circuits (terminal 2) via a capacitor C1 and a current limiting resistor R1. In position C1 firm - chip developer recommends using a ceramic capacitor types NPO, X7R, X5R or equivalent types. Voltage gain circuit is defined by the resistors R1 and NFB circuit R4 and can be calculated by the formula: 
KU = R4/R1.
To increase the amplitude of the output pulses chip used on conventional two-stroke known transformerless amplifier circuit to increase efficiency with voltage boost capacitor C7, which is connected between the output (pin 7) and the input voltage boost circuit (pin 5). The capacitor C7 is selected in the range of 0.1 ... 1 uF. To protect the internal circuitry chip overload C7 connected in parallel with the zener diode D2 stabilization voltage of 6.2 V. For separation of the amplified signal and suppress high frequency components of the pulse in the load to the output (pin 7) is connected SFF consisting of choke L1 and capacitor C8. Capacitor C9 - isolating. Schottky diode D1 suppresses the induction currents and EMF emissions arising from the shift points in the L1 output switches when both keys are locked. PWM frequency transformation given feedback circuit R4, NW, and these denominations in the scheme it is 600 kHz. At a higher frequency increases power loss, and at least - non-linear distortion. C4 - NFB capacitor for high frequency. Capacitors Sat, C5 - decoupling filter feeding. To eliminate the passage of impulse noise on the supply lines capacitor C5 must be provided between the terminals 6 and 8 of the chip, and as close as possible to these conclusions. Simply work UMZCH this can be explained as follows. Input through Cl, R1 is supplied to the inverting input of the chip (output 2). This leads to a change in duty cycle duration and frequency of 600 kHz at the output circuit (pin 7) to change the law of the instantaneous value of the input signal and the appearance of the output signal amplified LF component, repeating the form input, which is through the LPF L1, C8 and separation capacitor C9 is supplied to the loudspeaker. Add to this can only be that the input and output signals in antiphase.

MR7731 chip comes in a TSSOP20F SMD, who has 20 pins and a metal pad on top for thermal contact with the heat sink. Rated power on the chip UMZCH MR7731 is 30 watts at 4 ohms load resistance and supply voltage 16 V. Frequency 20Hz .. "20 kHz. Efficiency of 90% at an output power of 5 watts. Harmonic distortion less than 0.1% for the whole frequency range with output power of 1W. Supply Voltage 7.5 - .24 B. chip 'built on four key output MOS transistors, which included the bridge. Feature mono UMZCH bridge is that they have two, usually equal to the output of amplifier channel keys that include half-bridge. Ie MR7731 chip contains two channels, similar in structure to the chip MR7720. Sol that these channels operate in antiphase, and the load (speaker) without dividing capacitors connected between the outputs of these channels, as a constant voltage at each output terminal is equal to half the supply voltage. For antiphase control switch channels normally used by the "master - slave» (Master - Slave), ie both amplifiers are included on the input signal sequentially 

C1, C2 - blocking capacitors. R1. R2-voltage divider signals, L1, NE and L2, C4-LPF

For this integration, both channels must be an inverting amplifier. The signal on the second channel is output from the first through the divider Rl, R2  or the limiting resistor.

Schematic diagram UMZCH Class D chip MR7731
Typical circuit diagram UMZCH Class D chip MR7731 is shown in Fig , and pin assignment of this chip is shown bottom

Pin Number Designation Appointment
1 NC Not used
2 PIN1 Non-inverting input of channel 1. Used as an input offset voltage (reference voltage)
3 NIN1 Inverting input channel 1
4 AGND1 Housing analog part 1
5 NC Not used
6 EN1 Enable input channel 1. High - MS enabled. Low - off
7 NIN2 Inverting input of channel 2
8 PIN2 Non-inverting input of channel 2. Used as an input offset voltage (reference voltage)
9 AGND2 Housing analog part 2
10 EN2 Enable input for channel 2. High - MS enabled. Low - off
11 NC Not used
12 BS2 Input voltage boost circuit channel 2
13 VPP2 Input voltage of channel 2 (7.5 ... 24 V
14 SW2 Output channel 2
15 PGND2 Housing supply circuits 2
16 NC Not used
17 BS1 Input voltage boost circuit channel 1
18 VPP1 Power supply input channel 1 (7,5 ... 24)
19 SW1 Output channel 1
20 PGND1 Housing supply circuits 1

      Sort out the details of the appointment on the chip UMZCH MR7731 scheme (Fig. ). Bias voltage to neiver-commuting inputs of both channels (pins 2 and 8), equal to half the supply voltage divider formed by R2, R5. Capacitor 09 bypasses these findings AC voltage, and capacitors C54 and C41 set the PWM frequency conversion of the 1st and 2nd channels respectively. These capacitors should be located as close to the terminals, near which they are drawn in the diagram. C53 - supply filter capacitor, and the C55 and C42-decoupling capacitors, which also should be placed as close as possible to the terminals, near which they are drawn. The input signal is applied to the inverting input of the channel 1 (terminal 3) via a coupling capacitor C35 and a current limiting resistor R16. The voltage gain of the channel is defined by 1 chip resistors chain DUS R14hR16, and channel 2 - Values ​​R44 and R34. NFB HF channel 1 through capacitor C29. and Channel 2 - through C34. Capacitor C37 - this capacitor voltage boost channel 1, and C22 - capacitor voltage boost channel 2. They increase the efficiency of the amplifier. Parallel to these capacitors connected diodes D13 and D15 with a voltage of 6.2 V. The strong stabilizing output sound stands out in Fitch at the outputs of channels 1 (L4, C47) and 2 (L3, C43) and goes to the speaker. Fitch suppress high frequency components of the PWM pulse signal at the outputs of the chip and do not miss them in the load. Schottky diodes D6, D8 quenched induced currents and EMF emissions arising coils L3 and L4 switch points in the output switches when they are all locked. These coils should be rated at 2.6 A. Each channel has its own enable input EN1 (pin 6) and EN2 (pin 10).With a low voltage level on these findings the chip will be in the standby mode, when high - in operation. MR7781 chip comes in a SOIC24 SMD, which has 24 output and a metal pad on top for thermal contact with the heat sink. Memorial power on-chip mono UMZCH MR7781 80 watts at 4 ohms load resistance and supply voltage of 24 V. Frequency range 20 Hz to 20 kHz ..... 95% efficiency at an output power of 80 watts. Harmonic distortion less than 0.1% for the whole frequency range with output power of 1W. Supply Voltage 7.5 - .24 B. chip built on four key output MOS transistors, which included the bridge. MR7781 chip has two equal channel amplifier with differential inputs and output MIS keys that included half-bridge. This device contains two amplifier channels, each of which ends on the half-bridge MOSFETs. All this reminds MR7731, but unlike this chip, typically inclusion MR7781 scheme is used, which can be called a parallel-series connection of amplifier channels (see Fig ). In this scheme, the input signal directly to the inputs of both amplifier channels. Moreover, one channel it enters the non-inverting input, and in the other - an inverting. Therefore, the upper and lower speaker terminals are applied at the same amplitude but anti-phase voltage signals that can be seen from the graphs shown in the diagram ( Fig ). The ratio of resistances limiting resistor R1 and resistor divider circuits DUS R2, R3, R4, R5 determine the gain circuit. Divisors through R2, R3 and R4, R5 are defined as the bias voltage at the inputs and made ​​negative feedback (NFB) at a constant voltage, which stabilize the mode amplification channels, ie these divisors set dc output channels equal to half the supply voltage, and by CCA to maintain them.

Simplified diagram UMZCH Bridged output (with parallel-serial control)
C1 - decoupling capacitor, 
R1 - limiting resistor, 
R2, R3 and R4, R5 - divisors circuits 00C DC and AC voltage, 
L1, C2 and L2, NW - LPF

MR7781 chip has a complex internal organization than the above circuit. This is indirectly confirmed by the number and pin assignments chip, as shown bottom .

Pin assignment chip MR7781
Pin Number Designation Appointment
1 DR1 Control output voltage of the low voltage channel 1
2 NC Not used (recommended to connect pin 1 or 3)
3 GND Corpus internal modulator
4 AI2 Non-inverting input of channel 2
5 BI2 Inverting input of channel 2 (input AUDIO HSE)
6 MO2 Internal PWM output + channel 2 (open-drain)
7 SHDN2 Enable input for channel 2. Active level - low
8 BS2 Input voltage boost circuit channel 2
9 GND Housing supply chain channel 2
10 SW2 Output channel 2
11 V + Input voltage PWM (7,5 ... 24)
12 M2 Input signal PWM driver stage of channel 2
13 DR2 Control output voltage of the low voltage channel 2
14 NC Not used
15 V + Input voltage of channel 2 (7.5 ... 24 V)
16 MO1 Internal PWM output channel 1 + (open-drain)
17 AI1 Inverting input of channel 1 (input DUS)
18 BI1 Non-inverting input of channel 1 (input AUDIO)
19 SHDN1 Enable input channel 1. Active low level +
20 BS1 Input voltage boost circuit channel 1
21 GND Housing supply circuits
22 SW1 Output channel 1
23 V + Power supply input channel 1 (7,5 ... 24)
24 M1 Input signal PWM driver stage channel 1

Typical circuit diagram UMZCH MR7781 on a chip is shown in Fig . The input signal is applied to the terminals 5 and 18 chip through limiting resistor R20 and capacitor C25. Resistors R3, R5, R7, R17, R19, R21, R12, R8 and capacitors Sat, C24, C9, C15 includes chain NFB DC and AC voltage. These chains set the gain chip and constant voltage equal to half the supply voltage, at the midpoint, ie outputs channels UMZCH bridge (pins 10 and 22 chips).Capacitor CIO in channel 1 and channel 2 S18a - Capacitors voltodobav matches that are needed to improve the efficiency of the amplifier.

Schematic diagram UMZCH Class D chip MR7781
LI, C2, L2, C2, C13, R2, C5, R18, C23 - it details the SFF, which is passed to the speaker audio signal and suppress pulse HF component of the PWM signal. SFF coils L1 and L2 must be rated at 5 A. The optimal frequency PWM conversion IC MR7781 is 400 kHz. It is determined by the capacitance of the capacitor C that is connected between the differential input pin of this chip (connected between the two terminals 5, 18, 4, 17). EMF emission quenching and induction currents in the coils L1 and L2 LPF moments in the switching output switches when they are all locked up, carried Schottky diodes D1 and D5.
Each channel has an enable input (active low). Pin 19 (SIIDN1) - this is the enable input channel 1 and pin 7 (SIIDN2) - enable input channel 2. These terminals are connected together. High level (inhibit signal) is generated using the parametric stabilizer R6, D3. With this level of power is turned off and is in MUTE, which is characteristic of low current consumption (
To obtain such a low power consumption mode MUTE, on-chip voltage regulators integrated low-voltage parts and circuit switching them. Control signals are output from this circuit chip via terminals 1 (DR1) and 13 (DR2), and then through the switching diodes D2 and D4 received at terminal 20, respectively (BS1) and 8 (BS2). Moreover, TT high level control signal output 13 (DR2) opens key on the bipolar transistor Q1. Through the transistor supply voltage supplied to the junction of resistors R1 and R11. Do chip MR7781 there are four interesting conclusions. This conclusion 16 (MOl), 24 (Ml), 6 (M02) and 12 (M2). MOl and M02 - it outputs PWM appropriate channels, a Ml and M2 - is key inputs output circuits. Conclusions MO and M with the same numbers are interconnected. In addition, outputs MO1 and MO2 are open drain. The pull-up resistor (external load) connected between these terminals and the voltage at the emitter of transistor Q1, - it is already known resistors R1 and Rl 1. C1 - supply filter capacitor, and capacitors NW, C12, C16, C8, C10, C14 and C18 - decoupling. To improve the outcome and reduce the interference is recommended to install them as close as possible to the corresponding terminals of the chip. To eliminate the characteristic UMZCH click for inclusion in the scheme established capacitors C7 and C9.
To ensure stability and repeatability circuit resistors R3, R5, R7, R17, R19, R21 and R12 should be 1% tolerance. The same shall be allowed, and a resistor R6.
THD indicated in the table, achievable and guaranteed only at a frequency of 1 kHz at the output power of 1W. With increasing frequency and power it rises. Dependence THD chip MR7720 from power (at a frequency of 1 kHz, 24 V supply voltage and load impedance 4 ohms) is shown in Fig, and the frequency of the signal (at 24 V supply voltage, load resistance of 4 ohms and power 19.6 W) -

In conclusion, I want to note that there are several varieties of PWM amplifiers. First, it is power "Class T" pulse width modulator which not only changes the duty cycle, but the frequency of the PWM output signal. Secondly, the so-called power "class N», information about which can be found in [3]. It also amplifier operating in key mode, but combined with the power supply unit.



STK465 Audio Amplifier 2x30W

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STK465 general description:

     A amplifier of acoustic frequencies can be manufactured with discernible materials, despite is known so much the difficulties of finding of materials, what the problem of regulations. These difficulties are overcome relatively easily if we find amplifier in form completed.
Completed STK465 is an amplifier of acoustic frequencies that offers qualitative output, using minimal exterior elements. Substantially he is one of big completed force. Has a line pins and incorporated metal surface for adaptation in cooler. The provision pins in a line, facilitates the placement completed in the end printed and his support in cooler. The circuit functions in a big range of benefits of catering, from 20V as 60V, and it attributes 30WRMS, when the tendency of catering is above 50V and composer resistance of loudspeaker is the 4 or 8 Ohm. The catering should be symmetrically.
     When it functions with tendency 56V then the tendency will be ± 28V as for the ground. With this recommended tendency of catering, the attributed force is 30 WRMS in charge 8W. The price of deformity is acceptable and oscillates around in the 0,08% for force of expense from 1W until 30W. Curve response his it is extended from 10Hz and reaches 100 KHz, with divergence 0dB and -3dB respectively, measured in force 1W. Using evolved techniques, completed amplifier STK465, can minimise the deformities even in highest levels of force. Other characteristically that determines the completed circuit they are: the wide area and the high aid.
     STK465 is drawn to be constant, when it functions in conjunction closed bronchi with big gain. As all the amplifiers, thus and this, under certain unfavourable conditions, can turn in oscillations. These oscillations have as result of returning in the same phase from the exit in the entry, or from bad designing PCB, or from bad choice of corridors in the circuits of entry. When you draw a printed circuit, it is important to return the current of charge and the current of signal of entry in the ground, via different corridors. Generally, positive is the charge it is connected directly in pin the catering and in particular in common pin electrolytic the catering. If entry and charge are connected directly in the 0V via the same road, then are created retroactions, what have as consequence oscillations and the deformity. To you we propose maintaining as much as possible smaller the cables of ground 0V and the capacitors of unharnessing, so that are limited the results of self-induction and resistance of lines of copper PCB. Sometimes the oscillation is owed in big length drivers between entry and expense, particularly if these have big length and the complex resistance of source are high. Can anticipate the oscillation that is owed in long wirings, adding capacitor from 50 - 500pf between pins entry. For the low deformity, important role plays also the placement of conductors of catering. This should be kept as much as possible more far from the wiring of entry, so that is deterred thus the not linear catering in the entry of IC. STK 465 does not have system of thermal protection, so that are avoided the thermal elations. If the temperature of JC reaches in high price, then the amplifier changes the polarisation of rung of expense. If the temperature is increased, then in order to is ensured the operation it should you grow cooler. The amplifier functions with catering of double polarity. In form 1 we see the electronic circuit of amplifier that Is based on the STK 465.

STK465 circuit diagram:
STK465 Circuit diagram

     The circuit is stereo and has two channels of amplifier in a nutshell. It is a formal designing that develops positively all the particularities completing. Concretely, we observe that the not inverting entry completed (pins 2 and 15, for each channel), is supplied from divider of tendency, which ensures tendency from the tendency of expense completing. At the same time with the entry in each channel, exists a capacitor 470rF, which achieves the unharnessing, in that it concerns the AC components of high frequency, while en line a capacitor 1mF allows in the amplifier to be supplied from desirable flourish acoustic frequencies, fence simultaneous the continuous component. Bronchi unharnessing it is realised with the help of networking of two resistances 33KW and 330W and a capacitor 100mF, which finally ensures factor of aid equal with 100. Finally, at the same time with the exit exists networking RC (0,1mF - 4,7 Ohm) that it attends to the minimisation of phenomenon crossover. The amplifier can be supplied from a line of double polarity. Still it can function under a wide region of tendencies (±10V as ±28V). The requirements of current depend from the force of expense and it can they begin from 120mA up to 1A. It is very important the catering to be sufficiently unharnessing, so that is avoided imports of annoying noises.

For the realisation of manufacture you are consulted the forms 2 and 3 that portray the PCB and placement of materials in this. Does not exist a dangerous element in the manufacture that it should him you are careful particularly, so much at the soldering, what at the use. Be careful the electrolytic capacitors, the placement cooler completed and naturally the polarity of lines of catering. One still directive in what it concerns the catering: good it is it is used power supply with big capacitors standardisation or still better stabilised.

STK465 pcb

STK465 layout

STK465 part list:

R1 = 1K
C1 = 1uF/35V
R2 = 3,3K
C2 = 470pF
R3 = 100
C3 = 100uF/60V
R4 = 330
C4 = 100uF/60V
R5 = 3,3K
C5 = 10uF/60V
R6 = 1K
C6 = 47uF/60V
R7 = 0,33
C7 = 8,2pF
R8 = 33Κ
C8 = 0,1uF
R9 = 4,7
C9 = 1uF/35V
R10 = 1Κ
C10 = 470pF
R11 = 3,3Κ
C11 = 100uF/60V
R12 = 100
C12 = 100uF/60V
R13 = 330
C13 = 10uF/60V
R14 = 3,3Κ
C14 = 47uF/60V
R15 = 1Κ
C15 = 8,2pF
R16 = 0,33
C16 = 0,1uF
R17 = 33Κ
R18 = 4,7
IC1 = STK465
LS1 = Speaker 40W 8 or 4 Ohm

Original article sourse http://iq-technologies.net

NE555 Ultrasonic Pest Repeller Circuit

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This circuit uses two transistors and one IC (555 timer IC) to produce a pulsating ultrasonic frequency. Transistors Ql and Q2 are connected in a direct-coupled oscillator. The frequency of that oscillator is set by capacitor CI. The oscillator output is taken from the emitter of Q2 to pin 7 of IC1. Transistor Ql is an npn transistor, and Q2 is a pnp transistor. The signal of pin 7 on IC1 causes the output signal appearing on pin 3 to be modulated or varied by the audio frequency developed by Ql and Q2. The IC itself is connected as a stable multivibrator with a frequency that is determined by C3.

Capacitor C3 sets the basic frequency to be well above the human hearing range (ultrasonic). The combined modulated ultrasonic frequency appears on pin 3 of IC1, where it is coupled by capacitor C4 to the piezoelectric transducer.

NE555 Ultrasonic Sound Source

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Using two NE555 timer IC devices, this circuit generates either pulsed or continuous ultrasonic signals. The values of CT for both pulse rate and ultrasonic frequencies can be calculated this way. SPKR is a small hi-fi tweeter.
NE555 Ultrasonic Sound Source


MJ11015 & MJ11016 Guitar Amplifier 60W

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Guitar Amplifier general description:

     This design adopts a well established circuit topology for the power amplifier, using a single-rail supply of about 60V and capacitor-coupling for the speaker(s). The advantages for a guitar amplifier are the very simple circuitry, even for comparatively high power outputs, and a certain built-in degree of loudspeaker protection, due to capacitor C8, preventing the voltage supply to be conveyed into loudspeakers in case of output transistors' failure.
The preamp is powered by the same 60V rails as the power amplifier, allowing to implement a two-transistors gain-block capable of delivering about 20V RMS output. This provides a very high input overload capability.

Guitar Amplifier features: 

Sensitivity: 35mV input for 40W 8 Ohm output42mV input for 60W 4 Ohm output
Frequency response: 50Hz to 20KHz -0.5dB; -1.5dB  40Hz; -3.5dB  30Hz
Total harmonic distortion 1KHz and 8 Ohm load: Below 0.1% up to 10W; 0.2%  30W
Total harmonic distortion 10KHz and 8 Ohm load: Below 0.15% up to 10W; 0.3%  30W
Total harmonic distortion 1KHz and 4 Ohm load: Below 0.18% up to 10W; 0.4%  60W
Total harmonic distortion  10KHz and 4 Ohm load: Below 0.3% up to 10W; 0.6%  60W
Treble control:+9/-16dB 1KHz;  +12/-24dB 10KHz
Brightness control:+6.5dB 500Hz;  +7dB  1KHz; +8.5dB @ 10KHz
Bass control:-17.5dB 100Hz ; -26dB 50Hz; -28dB @ 40Hz

Guitar Amplifier circuit diagram:

Guitar Amplifier circuit diagram

Guitar PreAmplifier circuit diagram:

Guitar Amplifier notes:

  • The value listed for C8 is the minimum suggested value. A 3300µF capacitor or two 2200µF capacitors wired in parallel would be a better choice.
  • The Darlington transistor types listed could be too oversized for such a design. You can substitute them with MJ11014 (Q3) and MJ11013 (Q4) or TIP142 (Q3) and TIP147 (Q4).
  • T1 transformer can be also a 24 + 24V or 25 + 25V type (i.e. 48V or 50V center tapped). Obviously, the center-tap must be left unconnected.
  • D1 and D2 can be any Schottky-barrier diode types. With these devices, the harmonic modifier operation will be hard. Using for D1 and D2 two common 1N4148 silicon diodes, the harmonic modifier operation will be softer.
  • In all cases where Darlington transistors are used as the output devices it is essential that the sensing transistor (Q2) should be in as close thermal contact with the output transistors as possible. Therefore a TO126-case transistor type was chosen for easy bolting on the heatsink, very close to the output pair.
  • R9 must be trimmed in order to measure about half the voltage supply across the positive lead of C7 and ground. A better setting can be done using an oscilloscope, in order to obtain a symmetrical clipping of the output wave form at maximum output power.
  • To set quiescent current, remove temporarily the Fuse F1 and insert the probes of an Avo-meter in the two leads of the fuse holder.
  • Set the volume control to the minimum and Trimmer R3 to its minimum resistance.
  • Power-on the circuit and adjust R3 to read a current drawing of about 30 to 35mA.
  • Wait about 15 minutes, watch if the current is varying and readjust if necessary.

Guitar Amplifier partlist:

R1__________________6K8 1W Resistor 
R2,R4_____________470R 1/4W Resistors 
R3__________________2K 1/2W Trimmer Cermet 
R5,R6_______________4K7 1/2W Resistors 
R7________________220R 1/2W Resistor
R8__________________2K2 1/2W Resistor
R9_________________50K 1/2W Trimmer Cermet 
R10________________68K 1/4W Resistor 
R11,R12______________R47 4W Wirewound Resistors 
C1,C2,C4,C5________47µF 63V Electrolytic Capacitors 
C3________________100µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor 
C6_________________33pF 63V Ceramic Capacitor 
C7_______________1000µF 50V Electrolytic Capacitor 
C8_______________2200µF 63V Electrolytic Capacitor (See Notes) 
D1_________________LED Any type and color
D2________Diode bridge 200V 6A 
Q1,Q2____________BD139 80V 1.5A NPN Transistors 
Q3_____________MJ11016 120V 30A NPN Darlington Transistor (See Notes) Q4_____________MJ11015 120V 30A PNP Darlington Transistor (See Notes) SW1_______________SPST Mains switch 
F1__________________4A Fuse with socket 
T1________________220V Primary, 48-50V Secondary 75 to 150VA Mains transformer (See Notes) PL1_______________Male Mains plug 
SPKR______________One or more speakers wired in series or in parallel Total resulting impedance: 8 or 4 Ohm Minimum power handling: 75W

Guitar PreAmplifier partlist:

P1,P2______________10K Linear Potentiometers 
P3_________________10K Log. Potentiometer 
R1,R2______________68K 1/4W Resistors 
R3________________680K 1/4W Resistor 
R4________________220K 1/4W Resistor 
R5_________________33K 1/4W Resistor 
R6,R16______________2K2 1/4W Resistors
 R7__________________5K6 1/4W Resistor 
R8,R21____________330R 1/4W Resistors 
R9_________________47K 1/4W Resistor
 R10_______________470R 1/4W Resistor 
R11_________________4K7 1/4W Resistor 
R12,R20____________10K 1/4W Resistors 
R13_______________100R 1/4W Resistor 
R14,R15____________47R 1/4W Resistors
 R17,R18,R19_______100K 1/4W Resistors 
C1,C4,C5,C6________10µF 63V Electrolytic Capacitors
 C2_________________47µF 63V Electrolytic Capacitor 
C3_________________47pF 63V Ceramic Capacitor
 C7_________________15nF 63V Polyester Capacitor
 C8_________________22nF 63V Polyester Capacitor 
C9________________470nF 63V Polyester Capacitor
 C10,C11,C12________10µF 63V Electrolytic Capacitors 
C13_______________220µF 63V Electrolytic Capacitor
 D1,D2____________BAT46 100V 150mA Schottky-barrier Diodes (see Notes) Q1,Q3____________BC546 65V 100mA NPN Transistors 
Q2_______________BC556 65V 100mA PNP Transistor 
J1,J2___________6.3mm. Mono Jack sockets 
SW1,SW2___________SPST Switches


Mixed connection to combined acoustic amplifiers

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Amplifier these recorder can be used in two ways - as a two-channel bridge with a maximum power of 2x25 W or as with a conventional four-load connection and "virtual ground". Power in this case is 4h7Vt. The most famous member of this family - Sony 1253/1853. To work with a subwoofer also need to use a dual-channel configuration.


Selecting the connection type, as in the previous case, be subject to the sensitivity of heads. A variant for capacitors C1, C2 act as HPF. They may be waived if the application heads provide undistorted reproduction of lower frequencies. Branch constant component produced internal capacitors radio. However, for option B necessarily the presence of two high-pass and low-pass filter for the stereo for the total channel. Their mission - to eliminate the parallel operation of heads at low frequencies. Since the impedance at low frequencies is almost equal to their heads DC resistance, lack of filters can lead to overload the amplifier, designed for a 4 ohm load. For stereo used first order filters (C1, C2), for the total - the second (C3L1R1). 

Another variant of the mixed load connection, but within one amplifier channel. It is convenient to connect two or three-way speaker system. LF-head bridging is used, and for the MF / HF or HF - the usual. Mode switch is set to the position for four-configuration. 


Dependence of the power supplied to the heads of fader position is shown in ris.2.b. In the process of regulatory power to the pavement maximum load decreases by 6 dB (4 times), because in the end positions fader scheme reduces to the usual ("left without a signal" shoulder amplifier acts as a "virtual ground"). Note that in the zone of the joint action of the heads, they are parallel-connected, but because these frequencies are affected by the growth of the load impedance due to the inductance of the voice coil, the amplifier is not really an overload occurs.
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Mixed connection acoustics bi-amplifier and the output fader

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     In the operation is still a lot of these "dinosaurs" of the mid 90s. A characteristic feature of built-in amplifiers such devices - they are designed for load 2 ohms and have a good supply of power. This is due to the fact that in the middle position fader front and surround speakers are connected in parallel. However, to use them in conjunction with acoustic component is impossible. The reason is simple - the introduction of the fader increases the output impedance of the amplifier, which leads to a change in crossover. Therefore, the only option enhancers such devices with modern acoustics - dual channel configuration, with the fader excluded from work.

     In this version, you can add a subwoofer to include it in a "mixed-mono". Since the relationship between the levels regulate front speaker and subwoofer impossible, depending on the sensitivity applied to select one of the heads of connectivity options.

     Option A is used in the case where the sensitivity of the front speakers 3-5 dB higher than that of the subwoofer. In this embodiment, they are connected to the amplifiers are not bridged, and the usual way, and the power supplied to them is not more than 7 w / 4 ohms. To obtain sufficient volume of the front acoustic desirable to use high-sensitivity head about 91-93 dB. Pay attention to their phasing - one of the "poluusiliteley" inverting the second - non-inverting. HPF cut formed by the capacitors C1 and C2 can be chosen arbitrarily, but the presence of capacitors is crucial - they do not miss out on the dynamics of the DC component from the output amplifiers. Front head shown conventionally broadband, but they may be coaxial or component.

     Option B is used in nearly all heads of sensitivity. The presence of capacitors C1, C2 for the normal functioning is not necessarily because it is used in a bridge connection. In the absence of capacitors in the passband head subwoofer filter work in parallel. This reduces the load impedance to 2 ohms, but the amplifier is designed. Subwoofer in both cases the second-order filter (C3L1R1).

Mixed acoustic connection to an amplifier with two bridge output channels

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Consider the circuit connection to the AC amplifier with two bridge output channels. Dynamic head BA1, BA2 speakers form the left and right stereo channels. They are shown conventionally broadband. Low-frequency head BA3 is connected between the output of the amplifier left and right channels, the signals are summed and head reproduces a mono signal.

This connection will be sure to have two high-pass and low-pass filter for the stereo for the total channel. Their mission - to eliminate the parallel operation and overload amplifier heads. Usually used for stereo first order filters (C1, C2), for the total - the second (C3L1) or third.Their payment is made in the usual way. Crossover frequency of the LPF and the order chosen in the range 80 ... 200 Hz, depending on the location of the low-frequency head. If it is placed in the rear compartment, the crossover frequency should be selected as low as possible, and the order - up to avoid reproducing the subwoofer "voice" of the range. However, this requires the manufacture of relatively large inductors.Used in their construction ferromagnetic yokes undesirable because the distortion caused by the inevitable core magnetization significantly degrade sound quality.
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FAQ on the speakers and subwoofer

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Recently could hear a lot of questions about speakers and subwoofers. The vast majority of responses can be found on the first three pages of any book written by professionals. Material is addressed primarily to beginners, lazy ;) and rural Homebrew, prepared on the basis of books I.A.Aldoschinoy, V.K.Ioffe partly Ephrussi, journal publications in Wireless Worrld, AM and (some) personal experience. NOT used information from the Internet and Fidonet. The material is in no way purport to lighting problems, and is an attempt to explain the basics of acoustics on the fingers.

Most often, the question goes something like this: "the speaker found that to do with it?" Or "tovarischch and say such subwoofers are>." Here we consider only one solution to this problem: For existing dynamics to make a box, with the optimal settings for HCH as possible. This option differs from the task factory designer-pull system to lower the frequency of the required quantity of TU

[Q] Hashel large speaker on the occasion unmarked. How to know whether you can make him a subwoofer?

[A] Hujno measure its T / S parameters. Ha Based on these data to decide on the form of HCH clearance.

[Q] What is the T / S parameters?

[A] The minimum set of parameters for the calculation of HCH design proposed by Till and Small.
Fs-resonant frequency of the speaker without registration
Q factor Qts-full dynamics
Vas-equivalent volume of the speaker.

[Q] How to measure the T / S parameters?

[A] To do this, you need to collect from the generator circuit, a voltmeter, a resistor, and the test speaker. The speaker is connected to the output of the generator with an output voltage of several volts across the resistor of about 1 kOhm.

1. Remove V (F) = AFC resistance dynamics in the resonance region. The speaker must during this measurement to be in the free space (the distance from the reflecting surfaces). Hahodim speaker impedance on the current fasting person (useful), write in the air resonance frequency Fs (this is the frequency at which the voltmeter maximal :), the voltmeter Uo at minimum frequency (well, for example 10 Hz) and Um at the resonance frequency Fs.

2. Hahodim frequencies F1 and F2, in which the curve V (F) intersects the level of V = SQRT (Vo * Vm).

3. Hahodim Qts = SQRT (F1 * F2) * SQRT (Uo / Um) / (F2-F1) is the total quality factor of the dynamics, we can say, the most important value.

4. To find Vas need to take a small indoor Boxes volume Vc, with a hole a little smaller than the diameter of the diffuser. Tightly to lean to the speaker hole and repeat the measurements. From these measurements, you will need a resonant frequency dynamics in the housing Fc.Hahodim Vas = Vc * ((Fc / Fs) ^ 2-1).

This procedure is written in the audio shop • 4 for 99 year. I had checked it out .. There are others, when measured mechanical properties of the head, weight, flexibility, etc.

[Q] I now have options speaker, what to do?

[A] Each speaker in the design sharpen a certain kind of acoustic design. To find out under what is, look at the quality factor.
Qts> 1,2 it heads for the open boxes, optimally 2.4
Qts <0.8-1.0 - head for closed boxes, optimally 0.7
Qts <0.6 - for bass reflex, optimum - 0.39
Qts <0.4 - for horns

Wise to sort head is not on good quality and value for Fs / Qts. Cite from memory, the reluctance of the formula to calculate.
Fs / Qts> 30 (?) Screen and open housing
Fs / Qts> 50 closed body
Fs / Qts> 85 Tubes
Fs / Qts> 105 Bandpassy (bandpass resonators)

Elasticity, meatiness, dryness and other similar characteristics of the sound emitted by Bass speakers, are largely determined by the transient response of the system formed by the speaker, woofer design and the environment. To this system was not to release the impulse response, its quality factor should be less than 0.7 for systems with one side of the radiation dynamics (closed and phase inverter) and 1.93 for two-way systems (design type screen and open box)

[Q] Where to read about the open design?

[A] Open boxes and screens is the simplest type of decoration. Pros: ease of calculation, no increase in the resonant frequency (the size of the screen depends only view of the frequency response), almost constant quality factor. Disadvantages: large size of the front panel. Sufficiently competent and simple calculations of this type of design can be found in VK Joffe M.V.Lizunkov. Household speakers, M., Radio and Telecom.1984. And in the old Radio certainly have primitive amateur calculations.

[Q] How to calculate the closed box?

[A] Making "closed box" is of two types, infinite baffle and suspension compression. Getting into a particular category depends on the ratio of suspension dynamics and flexibilities in the air box, denoted alpha (by the way, you can try on the first and second count and change by filling).For an infinite screen ratio is less than 3 flexibilities for suspension compression more than 3-4. Can be considered as a first approximation that the heads with high Q sharpened by an infinite baffle, with less-under suspension compression. Taken to advance the speaker enclosure is closed infinite baffle has a larger volume than the compression box. (Generally speaking, when there is a speaker, the optimal body under it is clearly a certain amount. Errors encountered when measuring the parameters and calculations, can be slightly corrected by filling).Speakers for closed shells have powerful magnets and soft suspensions unlike heads for the open boxes. The formula for the resonant frequency of the dynamics in the design of volume V Fc = Fs * SQRT (1 + Vas / V), and an approximate formula relating the resonant frequency and quality of the head in the body (the subscript "c") and open space (subscript "s") Fc / Qtc = Fs / Qts

In other words, it is possible to implement the required quality factor only way speaker system, namely the choice of the volume of a closed box. What is the quality factor to choose? People who have not heard the sound of natural musical instruments, usually choose speakers with Q bolee1 0. In columns with a quality factor (= 1.0) the smallest uneven frequency response in the lower frequencies (and what does that sound?) Achieved at the cost of a small release on the transient response. Maximally smooth frequency response is obtained when Q = 0.7, and fully aperiodicity impulse response with Q = 0.5. Homogrammy for calculations can be taken in the above book.

[Q] Articles about speakers often words like "approximation of Chebyshev, Butterworth," etc. How does this relate to the speakers?

[A] The speaker system is a high-pass filter. The filter can be described by the transfer function. Transfer characteristic is always possible to fit a known function. In the theory of filters use several types of power functions, named for mathematicians first licked a particular function.Function determined by the order (maximum exponent, ie H (s) = a * S ^ 2 / (b2 * S ^ 2 + b1 * S + b0) has the second order) and the set of coefficients a and b (from these coefficients You can then move on to the values ​​of the real elements of the electric filter, or electro-mechanical parameters.) Next, when it will go on the approximation of the transfer characteristic polynomial Butterworth or Chebyshev or something else, it should be understood so that the combination of the properties and dynamics of the body (or containers and inductance in an electric filter) turned so that most accurately the frequency and phase characteristics can be adjusted to a particular polynomial. Most smooth frequency response is obtained if it can be approximated by a polynomial Butterworth. Chebyshev approximation is characterized by the wave-frequency response and a large stretch of the working area (according to GOST to -14 dB) in the region of lower frequencies.

[Q] What kind of approximation to select the phase inverter?

[A] So before the construction of a simple bass reflex need to know the volume of the box and reflex tuning frequency (pipes, holes, passive radiator). If as a criterion to select the most smooth response (and this is not the only possible criterion), we get the following label A) Qts <0,3-most smooth curve will kvazitretego order B) Qts = 0,4 - better described battervortovskimi curves in) Qts > 0.5 - will allow the waves on the AFC, Chebyshev. In case A) bass reflex tuned to 40-80% higher than the resonance frequency in case b), the frequency of resonance, in case B) below the resonance frequency. Also in these cases will be a variable volume enclosure .. In order to find the exact frequency tuning, we must take the original formula, rather cumbersome to bring them here. Therefore, I refer interested in AudioMagazin 1999, then there is an educational program can be sorted out, or book Aldoshina. And even in the article Ephrussi Radio for '69 amiss.


If after reading all this, you still have the desire to rivet something yourself, you can take online nifty program type WinspeakerZ and calculate it all myself, remembering that of G.. candy not do. Not to be carried away by a decrease of the cutoff frequency, in any case, do not try to compensate for the roll off the amplifier. AFC can be leveled and a little bit, but the sound is enriched harmonics and subharmonics weight.On the contrary, the best results, in terms of pleasantness to the ear can be achieved forcibly ruining inlet UM very lowest frequencies, iefrequencies below the cutoff frequency HCH column. Another remark concerning the phase inverter configuration error in the resonance frequency of the phase inverter 20% leads to a surge or decline in response at 3 dB.

Oh, I almost forgot to say about subwoofers that actually strip resonators. Q-factor of the speakers for them should be even lower. The simplest bandpass too incalculable, but this ends my courtesy.
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UM protection unit and acoustics overcurrent

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It is based in protection circuit Audio Analogue Aida - from the site of its designer Federico Paoletti . I developed it a little bit and used in his new mobile amplifier - also borrowing from Paoletti. The scheme is applicable to any PA whose output - compound emitter follower (2 stages or more, or a Darlington Naturally - silicon, or a cascade of CMOS).
In the original scheme in the traditional circuit protection (voltage drop across the emitter resistor opens key bypass transition BE composite output transistor) added two optocoupler (circuit shunt base for the upper and lower arm). Current drawn from the shunt base flows through the LED of optocoupler and opens galvanically isolated key. Fine, but the same node can not just arbitrarily turn off power, but doing it on the pitch outside. Need another pair of optocouplers, shunt BE transitions output transistors:

Threshold set divider R1-R2 based on the current limit for each transistor and the emitter resistance in the circuit output. The total resistance R1 + R2 must be in the range 10 .. 100 ohms. Thanks circuit R3-C1-R4-D1, R8-C2-R9-D2 (LPF) threshold DC is much higher than the AF.Furthermore, the threshold decreases with increasing temperature T1, T2.
The first and fourth (vertical) optocouplers - security sensors (closed = alarm), second and third - the keys controlled by an external signal (sink current = off UM). In the chain of forced shutdown necessarily provide current-limiting resistor. Resistors R9-10 - I put instead of jumpers on the board, whether they are as such - probably not.

Despite the additional voltage drop across the LED, the scheme is guaranteed off the PA with a repeater on single and dual Darlington (0.33 ohms under the emitter). The main thing that current drawn T1, T2 in the "triangle" - the voltage amplifier - was sufficient to guarantee the inclusion of optocouplers (not less than 1 mA for TLP521). Optocouplers - any except Darlington (well, they go to hell, and do not need much gain here). Requires current transfer ratio is determined by currents and levels of automatic protection, as well as current shunt which will select from the "triangle". T1, T2 - any thin with low saturation voltage.

Incidentally, memorized by heart half volt LED on - not quite right. The LED TLP521 in this scheme falls at room temperature not more than 0.9V.

When designing the board first, "the mind" is placed own mind and protection circuit - second. In this "ground" defense to hold separate and connect with other "lands" at a common point "star." If a car amplifier analog ground unleashed current board of land and automation unit usually sits on the board, the circuit R4D1 R9D2 connect with analog power and ground otpronov - with on-board.
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Protection device speakers

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In life, frequent situations where, for whatever reason speakers connected to an audio amplifier, the power of which exceeds the maximum allowed for a system that, on the one hand, often produce the best sound quality, increase the dynamic range, with another - increases the risk of damage due to overload dynamic heads. This is especially true when using the speaker on school, student, youth parties, where the acoustics are often connected to the first that fell known good amplifier that is "powerful." To prevent damage to the speakers when applying for her power, exceeding the nominal, it is necessary to equip the unit overload protection, built-in speakers and requires no additional power supply. Schematic diagram of such a device designed to protect the AC power 10 ... 35 W is shown in below

Protection device speakers circuits

Also in case of overload tripping SS, this device also protects it from damage by the dynamic head in the event of failure of the transistor amplifier and its output appears on the DC voltage. The device is connected to the output of the power amplifier audio frequency. The AC voltage is rectified by a bridge diode VD1. Resistor R1 eliminates the influence of a job amplifier. The rectified voltage is smoothed oxide capacitors NW, C2. While the output power of the amplifier does not exceed the maximum allowable for the AU, the voltage at the capacitor C2 is small, the zener diode VD3 closed, hence also closed and SCR VS1. In the micro-current SCRs of this type are controllable, ie, they can close the control voltage. Since VS1 is closed and will be closed transistor VT2. K1 relay contacts are closed, dynamic head at AU will do 100% of capacity. As soon as the output power of the amplifier exceeds permissible for AC voltage on C2 increases so that opens zener VD1, open SCR VS1 and the transistor VT2, K1 relay contacts open, the power supplied to the speakers will be limited by resistors R11-R13. These load resistors are a power amplifier, which improves stability of the amplifier in case of disconnection of speaker system, moreover, these resistors reduces arcing between the relay contacts when closing and opening. When protection against overload LED lights HL1. Transistor VT1, emitter junction which operates as a diode with a micropower voltage stabilization 7 ... 12 V protects the FET from the breakdown of a gate insulator. Once the voltage at the amplifier output is reduced, zener VD3 closes closed VS1, VT2, relay K1 is closed, on the AU will come back full power. Resistor R8 introduces small hysteresis to prevent cyclic circuit-opening relay contacts at a constant power output, slightly higher than the threshold. R9 resistor reduces the current through the relay coil by opening its contacts, capacitor C6 accumulates enough energy required for reliable operation of the relay.

When placing the speaker structure within the housing structure elements operate in a fairly strong vibrations in a wide range of sound frequencies produced by the dynamic head, moreover, in some cases, should also be considered an alternating magnetic field from the dynamic head. PCB should be located at a maximum distance from the open magnetic systems dynamic heads.

The device used fixed resistors MLT, Cl-4, C2-23 or imported analogues. Trimmer R3 is desirable to use a sealed enclosure, for example, SP4-1, GPA-16c, SP5-16A, SDR-19a-3 SP4. After setting up the rotation axis of the resistor must be assigned a drop of paint. Capacitor C1 terephthalate film ethyl K73-17, K73-9 or similar. C4 - ceramic K10-17, CM-5, oxide capacitors - K50-35 or imported analogues. NW capacitor can be formed from two 470 uF (provided on the circuit board). If necessary, the capacitor C6 also be used for the operating voltage of 100 V. In the case when the device is applied with amplifiers having a supply voltage output stages more than ± 50 V electrolytic capacitors need to be at the voltage of 160 V, the power and the resistance of resistors Rl, R2 , R9 also need to increase. Capacitors NW, C6 set parallel to the PCB, and further secured with wire clamps on it. Diode bridge can be replaced by a similar low-power, for example, DB103-DB107, RB153-RB157 or make up of four rectifier diodes with a working voltage of at least 100 V. Instead KD243A can install any of a series of KD243, KD247, KD208, KD105, 1N4002-1N4007. 1N4738A Zener diode can be replaced by KS175A, KS175ZH, KS126K LED - any other. Instead trinistor KU112A can apply CG 112 AM in the TO-92. N-channel field effect transistor in this embodiment IRF9540 can operate without the heat sink. Its maximum drain-source voltage of 100 V, the domestic counterpart - KP785A. Instead, the transistor can be used IRF9634, KP796A having UCH MAX> 250 V. Instead KT315A can apply any of the series KT312, KT315, SS9014. Relay K1 - REC-29, passport DUSCH4.501.56.Resistance of the coil of the relay about 950 ohm stable switching contacts occurs at a voltage of 15 V, the minimum voltage retention - 7 V. This type of relay modules used in the control of domestic TV USTST. For replacements, consider the fact that the contacts of the relay must commute significant current.

PCB protection device speakers 
The apparatus may be mounted on a printed circuit board size 140x50 mm, wherein all the elements are installed than the LED. On Figure 2shows the circuit board from the conductors. 
From the installation fee is desirable to cover three or four thin layers of epoxy glue. Each subsequent layer is applied after setting the previous one. Fee is attached to the body with five screws inside AU MOH or screws. If possible it is desirable to close deaf thick-walled (> 0.5 mm) casing, which also reduce the probability of failure of the device due to vibrations in the powerful speakers, as well as reduce the likelihood of contact bounce relay. 
Manufactured author two instances these devices are used in conjunction with speakers 15AS-220, which uses dynamic head 25GDN-3-4.These systems start to wheeze and rattle when the input power more than 40 watts. Protection threshold set to 25 watts. These speakers are powered by an amplifier "Orbit UM-002 stereo", 
which is able to develop power above 50 watts at 4 ohms. Other two copies installed in homemade sealed AC collected on broadband heads 10GDSH-1 powered by an amplifier "Corvette 50U-068 C". On threshold of protection is also installed at the rate of 25 watts of amplifier at 4 ohms. If you are working with powerful speakers (> 35 ... 5O W) and a powerful amplifier SCR will close at too low power for this case, the resistance of the resistors R4 and R7 can be doubled. 
This device can be modified by setting instead of fixed resistor R2 thermistor NTC resistance of 3.3 ... 4.7 ohms at 25 ° C, which, through a pad of heat conductive rubber should be rigidly secured to the magnetic system, a powerful low frequency driver. In this case, strong heating of the magnetic system will include device protection with less output power amplifier.
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Calculation subwoofer using WinISD

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In this article I want to talk about and show how you can calculate the subwoofer and what you should pay attention when designing in the following programs: WinISD 0.44, WinISD 0.50a7. Detailed description of the program WinISD .

Payment will be made ​​for a box of ten-inch speaker Audiobahn 1051T. Let's start! Run the program WinISD 0.50a7

1. Create a new project (New Project). 
2. By pressing this button, select the speaker of the database program. 
3. View the T / S parameters.

4. T / S parameters. Click on (Next)

5. Selecting the number of speakers. 
6. Type of installation.

Normal - all the speakers are on the same panel.

Isobaric speakers are face to face.

Click on (Next)

7. Efficiency speaker. Shows what type of housing is more suitable. 
8. Selecting the type of box.

Sealed box - the name speaks for itself

Vented - box equipped with a pipe (Bass reflex).

Band pass 4th order - the speaker is located between the two chambers, one of which has a phase inverter.

Band pass 6th order - is between the two cameras equipped with both phase inverter.

Passive radiator - one closed box speaker and passive radiator (speaker without magnet)

Choosing which type suits us and click on (Next)

Next, the program offers a way to design the frequency response in different ways. I do not focus on this point and click Next. 
If you select Passive Radiator enter the program will offer the following T / S parameters of the passive radiator:
Vas - is excited indoor air volume speaker.
Fs - resonant frequency.
Xmax - the maximum stroke of the diffuser.
QMS - Mechanical Q.
SD - diffuser area.

Next we consider the example program Band pass fourth order.

Tab Driver.

9-10. Again, you can specify the number and type of installation speakers. 
11. Additional features. 
Tab Box.

12-13. Camera box 
14. Volume of the chamber. 
15. The frequency of the camera settings. 

Tab Vents (Phase inverter (s))

16. Number of bass reflex (s) 
17. Fazoinvertor diameter (s) 
18. Length bass reflex (s) 
19. Type of round or rectangular. You can change the nav on a circle. 
20. View fazoinvertora.

Turn to the main calculation box:

21. Click on the box shown schematically on the right mouse button while holding move the cursor along the axis (X) in-law to change the volume on the horizontal axis (Y) vertically to change the frequency. Similarly, the left mouse button to change the parameters of the lower chamber. The top of the curve should be above the red line between 35Hz and 120Hz if this subwoofer as widely as possible and smoother.

Transfer function magnitude. Amplitude frequency characteristic 

Like this, but the lower limit of 40 Hz and the upper 113Gts is also suitable. 
Where I marked with red dotted lines in practice there will be cut frequency crossover.

Select dates: Maximum Power. 

Maximum Power 

In this graph, the program shows the maximum power versus frequency. It can be seen that there is recession recession peak power 60 watts 39 hertz in practice cone speaker lacks stroke (Xmax) and an unpleasant sound - distortion. On the finished product it must also take into account and to limit the power

Select dates Maximum SPL 

Maximum SPL. This chart shows the maximum sound pressure 

Also seen a decline. For the same reason. Last two graphs from another speaker, I showed them to have clarity. 
Here are graphs for our guinea. First a little far-fetched at a frequency of 0 Hz to 25 Hz and all the speakers there is a recession.

Now we must determine the size of the box will be installed speaker. 
To do this, run the program WinISD 0.44 push a new project.

We need to introduce our dynamic parameters in this program because at its base it is not for this press «New» 
We proceed to WinISD 0.50a7

22. By clicking this button you can see the T / S parameters that need to be put in WinISD 0.44.

Introduce the parameters and click OK to close the window so as not to interfere. 
Create a new project.

23. Reposition the tick to select a speaker. 
Press on, and do just as well as in WinISD 0.50a7

Transferring the parameters of the box in WinISD 0.50a7 WinISD 0.44. 

24. Push to start to count the size of the box. 
25. Press and the program provides the optimal dimensions in her opinion. 
In disposal we have 10-inch speaker complete with its outer diameter of 300 mm to fit it into the box dimensions W and D Undue be less 300mm 
26. Width 300mm inscribe equals 0,300 METERS 
30. You can change the unit of measure by simply clicking on the dimension in this case the letter «m» 
28. Length of 0,300 meters is entered 
27. Push the «H» program shows height. 
31. Pay attention to the L1 and L2 is the height of the cameras should look to tie the speaker depth does not exceed the value of L2. 
But we must take into account the thickness of the material he is still in the lap of nutria has a shelf where the speaker stands and also take into account the thickness of the speaker himself, he, too, takes a beat him if I already priced big box in there to stand spacers they should also be taken into account. 7 parts obtained to calculate the correct items is necessary to consider that some of them will be unnecessarily whipped program shows the inner diameters. Letter «P» I'll puncture the material thickness which must be added to the other values. 
1) D x W 
2) D x W 
3) D x W 
4) H + (P * 3) x D 
5) H + (P * 3) x D 
6) H + (P * 3) x W + (P * 2) 
7) H + (P * 3) x W + (P * 2) 
Gets the size of the items if the material thickness of 20mm: 
1) 300x300 
2) 300x300 
3) 300x300 
4) 420h300 
5) 420h300 
6) 420h 340 
7) 420h 340

Now we can proceed to the calculation of the phase inverter.

32. Type fazoinvertora we use a rectangular 
33. Length. When the end of the phase inverter is shifted to the wall box 
it virtually lengthened, and in fact it turns out that he is not listening on that frequency and greater long WinISD 0,44 ignores this virtual extension can be calculated by the formula itself but it's easier to look in the program WinISD 0.55a7 
I repeat: it is really only when the end of the phase inverter is shifted to the wall box and when he speaks it is not valid. So the program shows WinISD 0,44 28,86 cm and WinISD 0,55 25,64 a7 sm.F phase inverter will be installed in the item number 4 420h300 subtract 20 from 420 is the height fazoinvertora get exactly 400 square fazoinvertor unnecessarily adds another item 8) 300h255

Here are the final dimensions of parts and their number. 
1) 300x300 
2) 300x300 
3) 300x300 
4) 400x300 
5) 420h300 
6) 420h340 
7) 420h340 
8) 300h255

34. Air resistance. Air resistance in a vented enclosure to do as little as possible by increasing the opening area of ​​the phase inverter.